Jealous no more!

Did you sit there this past week, turning green at the posts from students in the DNA class at the Genealogical Research Institute of Pittsburgh?

I4GGDid you try to get into one of the DNA courses at the Salt Lake Institute of Genealogy in January, only to get nosed out by someone else who grabbed the seat?

Without a doubt, DNA has gone mainstream in genealogy. It’s at the point where, in many cases, we simply can’t meet the first requirement of the Genealogical Proof Standard — the requirement that we conduct a reasonably exhaustive search of all resources that might produce the answer to a research question — without it.

But understanding DNA well enough to use it properly? Understanding when it can — and when it can’t — produce that answer we’re looking for? For that, we need to learn.

And how do we learn that when every institute class offered in genetic genealogy fills up in minutes?

Well… there are options. And there’s one option coming up soon that still has seats available if you act fast. So you don’t have to be jealous of everyone else who’s taking advantage of opportunities to learn about genetic genealogy — how to use DNA as part of our family history research.

It’s the inaugural 2014 International Genetic Genealogy Conference sponsored by Institute for Genetic Genealogy, and it’ll be held 15-17 August at the National 4-H Youth Conference Center in Washington, D.C.

The speakers include many of the most knowledgeable genetic genealogists and population geneticists from around the world. Dr. Spencer Wells, director of the National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project is the keynote speaker, and the program overall is terrific.

On Friday, August 15, after morning registration, you’ll be able to get in-depth explanations of the test offerings of the three major players in genetic genealogy testing: AncestryDNA from 1:15-3:15 p.m.; 23andMe from 3:30-5:30 p.m.; and Family Tree DNA starting at 7 p.m. (after dinner).

Sessions on Saturday, August 16, include Dr. Wells’ keynote, and presentations on YDNA, mitochondrial DNA, surname projects, African-American ancestry, using the X chromosome and using third-party tools to understand autosomal results — just to list some of the talks.

Sunday, August 17, offers sessions on Native American DNA, using DNA in adoption research, chromosome mapping, phasing, triangulation, case studies and even somebody who writes as The Legal Genealogist, talking about After the Courthouse Burns: Lighting Research Fires with DNA.

In-depth, hands-on, a wide variety of speakers and many opportunities to share.

All in one place, at one time, in just three weeks. And for a registration fee of only $85 for the entire conference.

You can get more information at the I4GG website: the conference schedule, a link to register, directions and more.

No need to be jealous of everyone who’s learning about DNA any more.

Come on out and join in the fun.

Posted in DNA | 2 Comments

Welcome to baby Beatrix!

Pour me a drink, my head is spinning!
I got to celebrate — a girl!
Somebody weave a chain of daisies;
You’ve got to decorate a pearl.
Tie her a bow of scarlet ribbons.
We’ve got to crown a tiny curl.
Pick out a tender tune for singing;
I got to welcome me a girl!

– “It’s a Boy!,” Shenandoah1

There is very little in this world that begins to compare to the joy of adding an entry to a genealogy database for a new twig on the family tree.

Trixie1Thursday afternoon, Pacific Daylight Time, baby Beatrix decided to grace us with her presence and, this morning, in the nanosecond I have free between arriving home from the Genealogical Research Institute of Pittsburgh and leaving for a course at Boston University,2 I had the pleasure of entering her particulars.3

Born 24 July 2014.

Eight pounds, 5 ounces.

Daughter of my nephew and niece-of-the-heart Ian and Lindsay in Oregon, where I will be speaking in October and will have the joy of visiting with this new baby grand niece.

Welcomed by older sister Isadora (known as Isadorable to her doting great aunt).

And welcomed as well by legions of grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins of all degrees.

There is no question whatsoever that she is the most beautiful baby on the face of the earth at this moment:


And there is no question whatsoever that her parents are doomed.

You see, we have such a history in our family…

And I can’t help but think of that history… and think of this little girl…

The fact is, she is the second child. Her older sister, called Izzy, is now just a little more than two years old.

The first child, in our experience, is the Good Child. The scholar. The caretaker. The one, for example, like this baby’s father.

Ian was my sister Kacy’s first-born. About the only trouble he ever gave her was the colic he experienced as an infant. Orderly. Intellectual. Well-behaved.

And then there’s the second-born.

Now I’m not going to tell tales out of school on my niece — she deserves a chance to tell the story of climbing out the window at 1 a.m. from her perspective, not that of her “just where do you think you’re going?” parents.

But it may tell you something when I note that I am my mother’s second child.

My older sister Diana and I shared a room from the time I came into her two-year-old life and disrupted its order and calm.

You could eat off the floor on Diana’s side of the room.

You couldn’t see the floor on my side of the room.

Diana was the one who babysat the younger kids during summers at my grandparents’ farm.

I was the one 50 feet off the ground in the crook of a tree branch pitching acorns down and making the younger kids cry.

Now I don’t want to suggest that Diana was always well-behaved. There was the time, just as one example, that she played hooky from elementary school. Playing in the field behind the new junior high school until the bells said it was lunch-time. Getting caught because the bells were the warning bells (lunch time in 15 minutes) and not the dismissal bells.

Need I mention whose idea it was to play hooky that day?

Or who said, “Listen! The bells! We can go home for lunch now”?

I can’t wait to see what Trixie gets up to.

I may have some suggestions… as one second child to another…


  1. Shenandoah, the Musical; music by Gary Geld, lyrics by Peter Udell. And no, I didn’t make a mistake; the name of the song really is “It’s a Boy!”
  2. The course description is here.
  3. And yes, I did carefully craft the citation!
Posted in My family | 12 Comments

Missouri’s manslaughter law

So… did you watch Who Do You Think You Are? last night?

The Legal Genealogist did.

MissouriIn a room with most of the 200 genealogists attending the Genealogical Research Institute of Pittsburgh.

Where else is a place going to break into cheers when a murder is mentioned? (Records. All those wonderful juicy records.)

And where else will people be yelling that if she’d just read the whole pension file, she’d have found out much more…?

And where else will students in the inaugural session of Law School for Genealogists immediately think to themselves, while they were watching the program, that they needed to “examine the statutes to figure out what constituted ‘manslaughter’ in 1843 Missouri”?1

Because, after all, we can’t possibly begin to decide if Martha Casto was justly convicted of manslaughter or not unless we know just what the elements of the crime were.

So… Could you find the definition of manslaughter in Missouri law in 1843?

Here are some hints.

Missouri’s statutes were revised and codified at least twice around the time of Martha Casto’s murder indictment in 1843:

• They were digested by the Eighth General Assembly in 1834-35 and the Revised Statutes produced by that effort were printed at the Argus Office in St. Louis in 1835.2

• They were also revised and digested by the Thirteenth General Assembly in 1844-45 and the Revised Statutes produced by that effort were printed for the State by J.W. Dougherty in St. Louis in 1845.3

So if you find both of those, and you find the definition of first degree manslaughter there, I have two questions for you:

1. What was the definition of first degree manslaughter in 1843, when Martha Casto was convicted of that crime?

2. Do you think she was guilty of first degree manslaughter?


  1. Cari Taplin, status update, 23 July 2014, Facebook ( : accessed 24 July 2014).
  2. Revised Statutes of the State of Missouri (St. Louis : Missouri General Assembly, 1835). And no, I’m not going to tell you exactly where you can find this online. Do your homework, class.
  3. The Revised Statutes of the State of Missouri (St. Louis : Missouri General Assembly, 1845). And no, I’m not going to tell you exactly where you can find this online, either.
Posted in Court Cases, Legal definitions, Statutes | 5 Comments

Worldwide Indexing Day a success!

So the goal was to have 50,000 people indexing and arbitrating index entries over a 24-hour period. That would set a new record… not to mention getting one whale of a lot of new index entries so name searches would turn up results on FamilySearch.

And … oh my … it didn’t start well.

The site was overloaded.

Folks couldn’t log in.

Batches wouldn’t download.

Some people tried and tried for hours and didn’t manage to connect.

It definitely Did Not Look Good.

And despite all that… this graphic says it all:

We did it.

Posted in General | 2 Comments

Reminder: it’s pool day!

Today is the day.

There are only a few hours left.

WorldwideEventPosterThe Worldwide Indexing Event at FamilySearch is underway.

You can read all about it here at The Legal Genealogist, but don’t just read about it — join in the fun!

The event continues today until:

• 9:00 p.m. Atlantic Daylight Time
• 7:59:59 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time
• 6:59:59 p.m. Central Daylight Time
• 5:59:59 p.m. Mountain Daylight Time
• 4:59:59 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time
• 3:59:59 p.m. Alaska Daylight Time
• 1:59:59 p.m. Hawaii Daylight Time

There’s plenty of help available if you haven’t done indexing before — and it doesn’t take long. You can learn and still do a whole batch before the deadline to be counted.

Come on into the indexing pool.

The water’s fine!

Posted in General | 6 Comments

Talk to me, please!

Dear DNA cousins,

You know who you are.

johnny_automatic_girl_prayingYou’re the ones who’ve recently tested with 23andMe. Your results have only just come in within the last little while.

One of you is projected to be The Legal Genealogist‘s second cousin. I know you’re female, and your mitochondrial haplogroup is J1c8.

I first saw you as my match in April and, except for my genealogy buddy and first cousin Paula and my nephew, you were my closest match ever on 23andMe. So I immediately sent you an invitation to share information:

Hi! Just logged in to 23andMe tonight and see that we’re projected to be perhaps as close as second cousins! I’d love to share information and see if we can identify our common ancestors. My father was a German immigrant, my mother’s family entirely from the US south (she was born in Texas). Hope to hear from you soon!1

And I haven’t heard from you.

That was really disappointing.

Then just this past week I logged in to 23andMe and there was another match appearing for the first time in my results. This time, the system projects you — my new cousin-match — to be potentially as close as a first cousin. I know you’re also female, and your mitochondrial haplogroup is I1a1.

Once again, except for my known first cousin and my nephew, you’re now my closest DNA match at 23andMe, and I shot you off a sharing request too:

Hello, there! 23andMe is showing us as very close relatives — maybe as close as first cousins! So… since I don’t know of any first cousins who’ve decided to test, I’d love to chat and compare notes. My direct email is (removed here to keep the spammers away).2

And I haven’t heard from you either.

Now I realize that there are a lot of reasons why a match might not leap onto the keyboard to respond instantly, and five days in your case, my new potential first cousin, isn’t very long. And I’m trying very hard to be patient.

But I’m not succeeding very well.

In my world, five days is practically forever. Remember the poster of the two vultures sitting on the branch and one of them says to the other, “Patience, my ass! I’m gonna kill something!”?

That’s me.

The graphic you see here? The prayer for patience that ends with “And I want it right now!”?

That’s me.

My curiosity about both of these cousins is about to kill me.

So tell me, cousins of mine… what’s up with the no response?

And is there anything I can do about it?


I wonder what else I need to put into my contact request at 23andMe to convince you that (a) I may be a little odd3 and certainly a bit driven4 but (b) I’m really harmless and getting in touch will not be a bad thing. More information? And, if so, what kind of information?

Do you need to know more about the background I think we might share?

Do you need to know more about me?

Do you need some sort of assurance about what I might do with anything you tell me?

What can I do to help facilitate a conversation?

Perhaps you’re that cousin from out west that I never met because of her parents’ divorce. If that’s the case, I can understand you might want to be cautious about sharing information that might seem disloyal to the parent you were raised by. I can work with you on that, and honor your concerns.

Perhaps you’re an adoptee. Perhaps you knew that, or perhaps you always suspected that the folks who raised you weren’t your biological parents. If that’s the case, I can help you find out more about your biological family… and I will honor any conditions you put on sharing information.

Perhaps you’re a first cousin once removed and you’re just discovering your connection to this wild and wacky family that you’re a part of. If that’s the case, we’re all standing by to welcome you with open arms.

What do you need to hear from me? What can I tell you that will help to bridge the gap between “this is cool” and “this is creepy”?

What else can I say in my sharing invitation that can help ease your concerns and your fears?

Tell me, please.

Because my curiosity is eating me alive.


– Your Cousin


Image: Adapted from Johnny Automatic via

  1. Judy G. Russell to projected 2nd cousin, 23andMe internal mail system, sent 15 April 2014.
  2. Judy G. Russell to projected 1st cousin, 23andMe internal mail system, sent 15 July 2014.
  3. Okay, maybe even a lot odd.
  4. Ibid.
Posted in DNA | 61 Comments

What’s in a name, anyway?

You can’t help but feel sorry for those in The Legal Genealogist‘s family who take up the reins a couple of generations from now.

I’d hate to be there while they try to figure out the naming conventions in my family.

MaxStart with the fact that my mother’s family is solidly southern.

That means that my aunt Cladyne was really Eula Cladyne, and my cousin Bobette was Michaela Bobette, that her sister Betsy is Monte Beth, that their sister Kay is Mary Kay, and that nobody is entirely sure whether my Uncle David was born as Fred David or David Fred. You get the picture.

And then there are those closer to home.

Including Max, who is celebrating his birthday today.

Max is my nephew, second child and second son of my brother Paul.

He is one-half of the reason why I am so excited and so honored to have been chosen as special lead presenter on the 11th Unlock the Past Cruise, scheduled for 14 February – 3 March 2016.

Because that cruise is from Auckland, New Zealand, to Fremantle, Western Australia. And Max and his older brother were born in Australia.

When we at home in the United States learned that the first-born had made his appearance, but hadn’t been named yet, the phone calls and even telegrams shot off to the destination Down Under.

We suggested all kinds of names that we thought sounded good with the family name … and some that had family history attached.

When we got the official naming news, we couldn’t quite figure out the genesis of that boy’s name: Rudolf. Rudi, for short. Nothing in our German family to account for that choice, and nothing in my sister-in-law’s Russian family.

Then along came son number two. (I did mention it’s his birthday today, right?) And his name: Max.

That’s when I started to suspect it.

And when the third son was born and we found out his name, I was sure of it. The third son is Stefan.

Because, you see, the deal was that my brother got to name the boys, and my sister-in-law got to name the girls, which ended up with Paul choosing three names and Nadine one.

And the only possible explanation for those three male names — Rudolf, Max and then Stefan — is that my brother thinks we descend from the Hapsburgs.

Nadine, of course, had no such pretensions when she named the girl.

Which, of course, leads to yet another story.

I remember vividly getting the call announcing the birth of their only daughter. My brother excitedly told me her name, and I wasn’t sure I heard it right.

“Kara?” I asked. “K-A-R-A?”

“No, Tara,” he replied. “T-A-R-A.”

“Oh,” I answered. “Tara! Sherman marching to the sea! Atlanta burning in the background! ‘Frankly, my dear, I don’t give a damn!’”

There was total silence on the phone, before he finally responded.


My brother had never read or seen Gone With The Wind.

I explained the references, and the fact that his daughter was about to share a name with a fictional Southern plantation.

He said he’d call me back.

I’m sure the Hapsburg prince who is celebrating his birthday today will get a celebratory phone call from his sister.

Who actually ended up being named Katya.

Have I mentioned lately that I love my family?

Happy birthday, Prince Max…

Posted in My family | 8 Comments

And the difference is…

So the peripatetic antics of The Legal Genealogist lead to northern Virginia tonight… and the annual dinner of NIGRAA — the National Institute on Genealogical Research Alumni Association.

The Institute, known as NIGR (pronounced NY-jer), is a week-long program at the National Archives in Washington D.C. and College Park, Maryland. It’s described on its website as “an intensive program offering on-site examination of federal records.”1

And, the website continues — with emphasis: “Designed for experienced researchers, it is not an introduction to genealogy.”

That, as a one-time sister-in-law of mine used to say, is a True Fact.

I know.

I had the great good fortune of attending NIGR in 2010, and there’s no truth-in-advertising issue here: intensive, it is; introductory, it is not.

And it is wonderful.

An entire week totally immersed in federal records and both the more common and lesser known resources of the National Archives, and, every year, the Institute ends with the Alumni Association dinner.

Which caused me, this year, to ask some questions. Such as… what’s the difference between a brig, a schooner and a cutter?

Because I have the honor of speaking tonight at that NIGRAA dinner… and the topic involves tales of some of our seagoing ancestors.

I’m not going to give anything away, but…


A brig, which is not the same thing as a brigantine, is “a sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts. During the Age of Sail, brigs were seen as fast and maneuverable and were used as both naval warships and merchant vessels. They were especially popular in the 18th and early 19th centuries.”2


A schooner was “a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts, the foremast being no taller than the rear mast(s)…. Schooners were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, and came into extensive use in New England. The most common type of schooners, with two masts, were popular in trades that required speed and windward ability, such as slaving, privateering, and blockade running.”3


And a cutter was “a small, decked ship with one mast and bowsprit, with a gaff mainsail on a boom, a square yard and topsail, and two jibs or a jib and a staysail.”4

Now the people who manned them…?

That’s a subject for dinner conversation…


Brig: Lance Woodworth, “Brig Niagra full sail,” CC BY 2.0.
Schooner: United States Navy, USS Arabia
Cutter: U.S. Coast Guard, The Eagle.

  1. National Institute on Genealogical Research ( : accessed 17 July 2014).
  2. Wikipedia (, “Brig,” rev. 28 Apr 2014.
  3. Wikipedia (, “Schooner,” rev. 9 July 2014.
  4. Coast Guard History, Frequently Asked Questions, ‘What is a Cutter?,’” United States Coast Guard ( : accessed 17 July 2014), citing Peter Kemp, editor, The Oxford Companion to Ships & the Sea (London: Oxford University Press, 1976) 221-222.
Posted in General | Leave a comment

Indexing marathon

What are you doing this coming Sunday and Monday, July 20-21?

WorldwideEventPosterSome of us, of course, The Legal Genealogist included, will be arriving at and beginning our learning experiences at the Genealogical Research Institute of Pittsburgh (GRIP).

Some of us may be starting new jobs.

Some of us may be heading off for summer camps or programs.

Some of us may even be starting vacations.

But we should all find just a little bit of time — just a half-hour somewhere during the 24 hours between 00:00 coordinated universal time (UTC) and 23:59:59 UTC July 21 — to join in the Worldwide Indexing Event at FamilySearch.

Now that raises a bunch of questions, doesn’t it?

What’s the Worldwide Indexing Event?

It’s a one-day push to get (a) lots of records indexed at FamilySearch that are now hard to access because they exist only as images without indexes to the names that appear in the records and (b) lots of people actively involved in indexing, because that’s the only way to cure the problem of images without indexes!

Think about it this way.

The one piece of information you might need to break through a brick wall in your research might be in an obituary published in a newspaper somewhere out there in a location you haven’t even considered. If all that exists is a digital image of the published obituary, how are you going to find it?

Now think what you might be able to do if the names in that obituary came up in an index search.

The same is true of all those passport applications filed in the United States between 1795 and 1925. I’ve seen one where my German-born great uncle named his father in the record.

Or perhaps you need to be able to find that one record in the Manchester, England, parish registers.

Just consider all the things we might be able to discover, if only we could find the records that relate to our ancestors — and especially the ones they created in all those places where we don’t know they lived!

That’s the value of an index. It’s a clue pointing us to records we couldn’t easily find — and perhaps might not find in our lifetimes.

What’s the event goal?

To beat the old record of 49,025 indexers and arbitrators who joined in a similar event two years ago, on 2 July 2012. The aim is to round up 50,000 people — current indexers and a whole bunch of new folks — to index at least one batch of records during this 24-hour period.

And yes, we can do more if we want to and have time. But we need to do one complete batch — which usually takes no more than a half hour even for a total beginner — to be counted towards the goal of 50.000 indexers.

What do I have to do?

If you haven’t done any indexing before, it’s easy. You can learn more about how it’s done here. You can take a test drive, or get started with the basics, or find an indexing project that’s just right for you. There’s additional help here, too.

There are hundreds of projects to choose from to begin your indexing. FamilySearch is recommending four in particular for this event:

• US—Obituaries, 1980–2014
• US—Passport Applications, 1795-1925
• US, New Orleans—Passenger Lists, 1820-1902
• UK, Manchester—Parish Registers, 1787-1999

But there are so many more, from every part of the world, so if you’re Canadian, pick one from Canada. Australian? Plenty for you. European? Lots in your native language.

When are the start and end times in MY time zone?

Well, that kinda depends on what time zone you’re in, now, doesn’t it? You can check out what the time is right now in Coordinated Universal Time at this website, and do the calculation yourself.

Or you can just figure it this way. The start time of 00:00 UTC converts for the United States as:

• 9:00 p.m. Atlantic Daylight Time
• 8:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time
• 7:00 p.m. Central Daylight Time
• 6:00 p.m. Mountain Daylight Time
• 5:00 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time
• 4:00 p.m. Alaska Daylight Time
• 2:00 p.m. Hawaii Daylight Time

Need more help? There’s a Facebook page for the event that promises to help with local start times and even to provide status updates.

Can we count on you?

You betcha. I’m not sure where exactly I’m going to find that time — I’m teaching three full classes on Monday the 21st at GRIP — but I’ll find it somewhere, somehow.

Join me?

Posted in General | 12 Comments

Mason of Texas

You never know what you’re going to find in a statute book.


MasonThe Legal Genealogist is the daughter, granddaughter, and great granddaughter of Texans, so it’s always fun to have time to poke around in old Texas records.

And I was poking around last night in a book of old Texas laws.

Really old Texas laws — those of the Republic of Texas.

Not because I was looking for anything in particular but just because it’s fun. You never know what you’re going to find.

Like the story of John T. Mason.

Right there, in the front of volume I of this two-volume set of Texas Republic laws, is the Constitution of the Republic of Texas.

Which contains this provision:

whereas the protection of the public domain from unjust and fraudulent claims, and quieting the people in the enjoyment of their lands, is one of the great duties of this convention; and whereas the legislature of Coahuila and Texas having passed an act in the year 1834, in behalf of general John T. Mason of New York, and another on the 14th day of March, 1835, under which the enormous amount of eleven hundred leagues of land has been claimed by sundry individuals, some of whom reside in foreign countries, and are not citizens of the republic, — … It is hereby declared that the said act of 1834, in favor of John T. Mason … and each and every grant founded thereon, is, and was from the beginning, null and void; and all surveys made under pretence of authority … are hereby declared to be null and void …1

Uh oh.

So… who was John T. Mason and what was wrong with his … um … land grab?

Turns out he was a native Virginian, son of Stevens Thompson Mason, a Continental Army officer and later United States Senator from Virginia.2

He was born in Loudon County, Virginia, in 1787, and was just 25 when he moved to Kentucky. There, he became United States marshal by appointment of President James Monroe. He was named as secretary of the Territory of Michigan and superintendent of Indian affairs in 1830 by President Andrew Jackson.3

And then came the land situation.

Mason resigned from his U.S. government jobs in 1831, and took a job as confidential agent for the Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company — a New York company. This was a major land speculation operation involving millions of acres of land, shares being sold to stockholders, and grants being promised to those who would migrate into Texas and take up residence there.4

And it was John Mason’s job to represent this company and see to it that everything went smoothly.

Except for one little hitch.

There was an 1830 Mexican law barring immigration to Texas from the United States. The New York company couldn’t deliver title to the people it was recruiting.5

Mason headed off to Mexico and secured extensions of the underlying land rights. By 1833, he’d managed to convince the Mexican government to repeat the law against American colonization. He then resigned from the land company, bought some 400 leagues of land — nearly two million acres — for himself, and was doing his own land office business: literally and figuratively.6

In the meantime, in reliance on the laws he’d secured, the New York land company had issued titles for more than 916 square leagues of land — nearly four million acres — by 1835.7

And then the house of cards came crashing down. Mason’s land ownership and all the grants dependent on it and on the laws he’d secured were expressly annulled by the Constitution, adopted 17 March 1836. His land business was pretty much destroyed.8

He didn’t turn his back on Texas, however. He stayed there and eventually supported the Texas revolutionary cause. And he paid the ultimate price for his Texas loyalty — he contracted cholera there and died in Galveston in 1850.9

Now think about that.

Here we have the story not just of one man, but of a company, its shareholders, the immigrants it brought to Texas, all their land grants and titles and the years of lawsuits that followed as people tried to settle who owned what.

And all from one small paragraph in one small section of a single document in a set of statute books.

You never know what you’re going to find in a statute book…


  1. §10, General Provisions, Constitution of the Republic of Texas, in Laws of the Republic of Texas, in two volumes (Houston : p.p., 1838), 1: 20-21; digital images, University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History ( : accessed 15 July 2014).
  2. Wikipedia (, “Stevens Thomson Mason (Virginia),” rev. 16 Mar 2014.
  3. Robert Bruce Blake, “Mason, John Thomson,” Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association ( : accessed 15 July 2014).
  4. Andreas Reichstein, “Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company,” Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association ( : accessed 15 July 2014).
  5. Ibid.
  6. Blake, “Mason, John Thomson,” Handbook of Texas Online.
  7. Reichstein, “Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company,” Handbook of Texas Online.
  8. Blake, “Mason, John Thomson,” Handbook of Texas Online.
  9. Ibid.
Posted in Constitutions, Primary Law, Statutes | 2 Comments