Thank you, Phoebe King Ensminger Burn
It was 100 years ago today that Harry T. Burn did what he was told.
He listened to his mama.
And the result of doing that simple thing was historic in every sense of that word.
It was precisely 100 years ago today that Harry T. Burn, a young politician from McMinn County, cast the deciding vote in the Tennessee House of Representatives on a proposition of monumental consequence.
The proposition: votes for women.
By the spring of 1920, 35 states had voted to ratify the proposed constitutional amendment granting suffrage to women: Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan had been the first in June of 1919, and Washington State had been the 35th in March of 1920.1
But 36 states were needed for the amendment to become law. And eight of the remaining 13 states had already voted it down.2
When it reached the House of Representatives in Tennessee in August of 1920, the vote on the amendment was deadlocked at 48-to-48.3 Burn — just 24 years old at the time4 — had expressed serious doubts about the issue that had come before the House for a vote. He’d initially taken a position against it.5
But then the moment came when that young Tennessee representative changed his mind, cast his vote and broke the tie.
That one vote made Tennessee the 36th state to ratify the amendment. And women acrtoss the United States won the right to vote.6
So… what happened on that day in August 1920? What changed young Harry T. Burn’s mind?
The story is that he listened to his mother. He had received a note from her, dated the 17th of August. A note both utterly mundane and utterly earthshaking.
“Dear Son,” it begins. “I wish you were home too. We have had nothing but rain since you left.”7 After more complaints about the rain, and talking about visitors, she changed the subject:
Hurrah and vote for Suffrage and don’t keep them in doubt. … I’ve been watching to see how you stood but have not seen anything yet.8
Then it’s back to routine matters. The sale of a house. Getting ready for a wedding. Someone being sick.
And then once more:
Don’t forget to be a good boy, and help Mrs. “Thomas Catt” with her “Rats.” Is she the one that put rat in ratification? Ha! No more from Mama this time. With lots of love.9
“Mama” was Phoebe (or Febbie) King (Ensminger) Burn. Born in Tennessee 23 November 1873,10 she married James Lafayette Burn the day after Christmas in 1894.11 Harry was the first of their four children.
And she was a remarkable woman in every way:
Phoebe, or Febb, … held a degree from U.S. Grant University, now Tennessee Wesleyan University, unusual for women of her day. … (H)er husband was stationmaster at Mouse Creek (Niota) for the East Tennessee, Virginia and Georgia Railway. He was founder of Crescent Hosiery Mill and associated with the Bank of Niota.
After her husband passed Febb ran the family farm, which she renamed to “Hathburn” … She was an important influence in all her children’s lives and passed away in 1945.
Febb served as a local school teacher, attended Niota Methodist Church, and was an avid reader. She read three newspapers each day, enjoyed magazines, novels and classic books and was a supporter of suffrage for many years, following those she called “the militants” and other leaders of the women’s movement.
She said she wrote the famous letter to her son while sitting on the porch of her Niota home.12
Burn was quoted later in life as saying that, in the end, he couldn’t vote against suffrage for women when his college-educated mother was denied the vote while illiterate tenant farmers in the district he represented could vote. So maybe it wasn’t the note from his mother that made the difference.
But he had it in his pocket when he voted.
When he did as he was told.
And listened to his mama.
Thank you, Phoebe King Ensminger Burn. Even if the note itself didn’t make the difference, you did. You raised a good boy indeed.
And we will all vote, this year and every year, to celebrate this incredible anniversary.
Cite/link to this post: Judy G. Russell, “Doing as he was told,” The Legal Genealogist (https://www.legalgenealogist.com/blog : posted 18 Aug 2020).
Image: Envelope, Letter to Harry Burn from Mother, Knox County (Tenn.) Public Library.
- See Wikipedia (https://www.wikipedia.com), “Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution,” rev. 18 Aug 2020. ↩
- Ibid. ↩
- Mike Steely, “Niota, where one vote counts,” The Knoxville Focus, posted 9 Dec 2013 (http://knoxfocus.com/ : accessed 18 Aug 2020). ↩
- Delayed Certificate of Birth No. D-343860, Harry Thomas Burn, 12 Nov 1895; Tennessee Division of Vital Statistics, Nashville; digital images, “Tennessee, Delayed Birth Records, 1869-1909,” Ancestry.com (https://www.ancestry.com : accessed 17 Aug 2018). ↩
- Mike Steely, “The Woman Behind Women’s Right to Vote,” The Knoxville Focus, updated 18 Aug 2020 (http://knoxfocus.com/ : accessed 18 Aug 2020). ↩
- See “Women’s Suffrage: Tennessee and the Passage of the 19th Amendment,” Tennessee State Library and Archives (https://sos.tn.gov/products/tsla/ : accessed 18 Aug 2020). ↩
- Letter to Harry Burn from Mother, page 1; Digital Collection, Calvin M. McClung Historical Collection, Knox County Public Library (https://cmdc.knoxlib.org/cdm/ : accessed 18 Aug 2020). ↩
- Ibid., page 2. ↩
- Ibid., page 6. ↩
- Niota Cemetery, McMinn County, Tennessee, Febb Burn marker; digital image, Find A Grave (http://findagrave.com : accessed 18 Aug 2020). ↩
- McMinn County, Tennessee, Marriage Book 5: 121, Burn-Ensminger, 26 Dec 1894; County Clerk, Athens; digital images, “Tennessee, County Marriages, 1790-1950,” FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 18 Aug 2020). ↩
- Steely, “The Woman Behind Women’s Right to Vote.” ↩