Different times, different meanings
She was, by all accounts, a strong and determined woman.
Mother of four children, three surviving to adulthood, she raised her youngsters largely without the assistance of her husband.
And therein lies the tale.
Sarah Christina S. Roberts was born 9 March 1846 in Bath County, and died there 5 March 1924 in the Williamsville Magisterial District.1 Daughter of Daniel Roberts and Mary Bauserman, she married a Civil War veteran, Daniel McCune, in Bath County just after the war’s end, on 21 September 1865.2
Sarah’s children were all born in Bath County. Her first child, daughter Mary Virginia, was born 22 July 1866;3 her second, son John, on 2 March 1868;4; her third, a son who did not survive, on 17 September 1869;5 and her last, son Francis Cameron, on 7 October 1877.6
The family was enumerated in Bath County in 1880: Daniel was shown as “Danil” McCune, age 45, a farmer born in Virginia of parents both born in Virginia. Sarah was shown as age 30, born in Virginia of parents both born in Virginia. Three children were enumerated with them: daughter “Jennie,” age 13; son John, age 11; and son Cameron, age 2. “Jennie” (Mary Virginia) and John were shown as having attended school within the prior year.7
And the next time the census records show the family — the 1900 census of Bath County — Sarah was recorded as a widow.8
But she wasn’t.
What Sarah was, in 1900, was a “grass widow.”
If you look it up, you will find the term in at least one law dictionary: “A slang term for a woman separated from her husband by abandonment or prolonged absence; a woman living apart from her husband,” says Black’s Law Dictionary, citing to the Webster’s Dictionary of the day.11
And for most of us, as American genealogists, working in 19th or 20th or even 21st century records, that’s the usage and the meaning we’re going to encounter.
But there are other meanings at different times and different places.
In general British usage, the term may well mean only “a woman whose husband is temporarily away, say on business.”12 It doesn’t carry the same essential implication of marital strife the way the American usage does.
But both the British and American uses show up for the first time in the 1840s.13 And the term was in use long before that.
In that older usage, going back as early as 1528, “grass widow had a much coarser meaning, namely ‘a woman who lost her virginity before the wedding’ and ‘a deserted mistress.’”14
So it’s a matter of time and place… and in 1900 Virginia, it was used for a widow who wasn’t — not yet.
- Virginia State Board of Health, death certificate no. 5407 (1924), Mrs. Sarah McCune, 5 March 1924; Bureau of Vital Statistics, Richmond. ↩
- Bath County, Virginia, Marriage Licenses 1853-1904, chronologically arranged, Daniel W. McCune and Sarah C.S. Roberts, 21 September 1865; Circuit Court Clerk’s office, Warm Springs. ↩
- Va. Dept. of Health, death certificate no. 11050 (1942), Mary Virginia Burnett, 10 May 1942. ↩
- Bath Co., Register of Births 1853-1870, p. 35, line 76, entry for John H. McCune, 2 March 1868. ↩
- Bath Co., Register of Births 1853-1870, p. 37, line 64, entry for unnamed male McCune, 17 September 1869. ↩
- Bath Co., Birth Register, carded records, entry for Francis C.L. McCune, citing tax assessor list for 1877, sheet 18, line 38. The birth card erroneously reports the child’s gender as female. ↩
- 1880 U.S. census, Bath County, Virginia, Williamsville Township, population schedule, enumeration district (ED) 28, p. 14B (penned), dwelling 110, family 112, Danil McCune; digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 23 May 2011); citing National Archive microfilm publication T9, roll 1355. ↩
- 1900 U.S. census, Bath County, Virginia, Williamsville Township, population schedule, enumeration district (ED) 44, sheet 11B, p. 56B (stamped), dwelling 187, family 188, Sarah McCune household; digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 14 April 2011); citing National Archive microfilm publication T623, roll 1701. ↩
- Bath Co., Table of Tracts of Land for the Year 1882, alphabetically arranged, entry for “McCune, Daniel W.”; LVA land tax microfilm 745. ↩
- Calhoun County, (West) Virginia, Death Register 2: 253, entry 632, McCune, D.W., 21 November 1907; County Clerk’s Office, Grantsville. ↩
- Henry Campbell Black, A Dictionary of Law (St. Paul, Minn. : West, 1891), 548, “grass widow.” ↩
- See Michael Quinion, “Grass widow,” World Wide Words (http://www.worldwidewords.org : accessed 1 Apr 2014). ↩
- See ibid. Also, Online Etymology Dictionary (http://www.etymonline.com/ : accessed 1 Apr 2014), “grass widow.” ↩
- Anatoly Liberman, “Grass Widows and Straw Men,” Oxford University Press’s OUPblog, posted 18 Feb 2009 (http://blog.oup.com/ : accessed 1 Apr 2014). ↩